In western Europe, shifts were less dramatic than they had been at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, but they posed important challenges to older traditions and to early industrial behaviours alike. In Russia, initial industrialization contributed to literally revolutionary tensions soon after The geographic spread of the Industrial Revolution was important in its own right.
South America[ edit ] Cultivation of potatoes in South America may go back 10, years,  yet the tubers do not preserve well in the archaeological record, and there are problems with exact identification of those that are found. The fact that the Altiplanos chose to represent the potato in their vessels shows they had great social significance to the people there.
In the Altiplanopotatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca Empireits predecessors, and its Spanish successor. Andean Indians prepared their potatoes in a variety of ways, such as mashed, baked boiled, and stewed in ways similar to modern day Europeans.
The Andean Indians also prepared a dish called papas secas, which was a process that involved boiling, peeling, and chopping. These potatoes were then fermented in order to create toqosh: Doing this repeatedly allowed for a softening of the potatoes.
Farmers then extract the water from the potato, leaving it much lighter and smaller. This new creation was then prepared into a stew, and usually was an addition to a stew. Its primary benefit is that it can be stored for years without refrigeration, which came into use especially during years of famine or bad harvests.
Secondly, this long shelf life allowed it to be the staple food for the Inca Armies, due to how well it traveled and maintained its flavor and longevity. Columbian exchange Sailors returning from the Andes to Spain with silver presumably brought maize and potatoes for their own food on the trip.
Basque fishermen from Spain used potatoes as ships' stores for their voyages across the Atlantic in the 16th century, and introduced the tuber to western Irelandwhere they landed to dry their cod. The English privateer Sir Francis Drakereturning from his circumnavigation, or Sir Walter Raleigh 's employee Thomas Harriot  are commonly credited with introducing potatoes into England.
Inbotanist Carolus Clusius made a painting of what he called "Papas Peruanorum" from a specimen in the Low Countries ; in he reported that potatoes were in common use in northern Italy for animal fodder and for human consumption.
It was first eaten on the continent at a Seville hospital in After Philip II received potatoes from Peru, he sent harvested tubers to the pope, who sent them to the papal ambassador to the Netherlands because he was ill. Clusius indirectly received his tubers from the ambassador; he planted them in Vienna, Frankfurt, and Leyden, and is the person who widely introduced the plant to Europe.
It was grown for flowers by Rudolph Jakob Camerarius and others; John Gerard added the first printed picture of the potato to Herballalthough he thought that the plant was native to Virginia. Peasants along the way adopted the crop, which was less often pillaged by marauding armies than above-ground stores of grain.
Across most of Northern Europewhere open fields prevailed, potatoes were strictly confined to small garden plots because field agriculture was strictly governed by custom that prescribed seasonal rhythms for plowing, sowing, harvesting and grazing animals on fallow and stubble.
This meant that potatoes were barred from large-scale cultivation because the rules allowed only grain to be planted in the open fields. The potato thus became an important staple crop in northern Europe. Famines in the early s contributed to its acceptance, as did government policies in several European countries and climate change during the Little Ice Agewhen traditional crops in this region did not produce as reliably as before.
By the end of the 18th century it was written in the edition of Bon Jardinier: The poor should be quite content with this foodstuff. King Louis XVI and his court eagerly promoted the new crop, with Queen Marie Antoinette even wearing a headdress of potato flowers at a fancy dress ball.
Although potatoes had become widely familiar in Russia bythey were confined to garden plots until the grain failure in —39 persuaded peasants and landlords in central and northern Russia to devote their fallow fields to raising potatoes.
Potatoes yielded from two to four times more calories per acre than grain did, and eventually came to dominate the food supply in Eastern Europe.
Boiled or baked potatoes were cheaper than rye bread, just as nutritious, and did not require a gristmill for grinding. On the other hand, cash-oriented landlords realised that grain was much easier to ship, store and sell, so both grain and potatoes coexisted.
This Kartoffelbefehl potato order termed the unfamiliar tuber "a very nutritious food supplement. Throughout Europe, the most important new food in the 19th century was the potato, which had three major advantages over other foods for the consumer: The crop slowly spread across Europe, such that, for example, by it occupied one-third of Irish arable land.
It served as a cheap source of calories and nutrients that was easy for urban workers to cultivate on small backyard plots. Potatoes became popular in the north of Englandwhere coal was readily available, so a potato-driven population boom provided ample workers for the new factories.
Marxist Friedrich Engels even declared that the potato was the equal of iron for its "historically revolutionary role".To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome.
History of Europe; History of the euro; History of defence integration; History of enlargement; Germany was cautious about giving up its stable currency, i.e., the German Mark, Except for Germany, the plan for introduction of the new currency was basically the same.
The Holocaust (also called Ha-Shoah in Hebrew) refers to the period from January 30, - when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany - to May 8, , when the war in Europe officially ended.
During this time, Jews in Europe were subjected to progressively harsher persecution that ultimately led to the murder of 6,, Jews . Introduction. The period of European history referred to as the Renaissance was a time of great social and cultural change in Europe.
Generally speaking, the Renaissance spanned from the 14th to the 16th centuries, spreading across Europe from its birthplace in Italy. History of Modern Europe, Volume 2: From the French Revolution to the Present (W.W.
Norton & Co., ) and/or David G. Williamson’s Germany Since A Nation Forged and Renewed (Palgrave MacMillan, ). Understanding "Old Europe": An Introduction to the Culture, Politics, and History of France, Germany, and Austria - Kindle edition by Ralph P Güntzel.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or lausannecongress2018.com: Ralph P Güntzel.