Table adapted from Levisen and Waters  and Goddard and Wierzbicka .
Since then there have been 12 books, including a textbook Goddard and several collective volumes or special issues Goddard ed. Some of these are represented in the present volume.
Jackendoff which predominated for most of last cen- tury, in favour of semantic and typological studies. A strong point of NSM work over three decades has been the consistency or stability of its notation, in particular, the use of reductive paraphrases. This stands in sharp contrast to the situation in linguistics at large especially in syn- taxwhere, as Croft This is not to say, of course, that the program has been static over the years.
On the contrary, it is possible to discern several periods in which research activity was focused on different goals. The key publications Wierzbickaa, b worked with a very austere set of 13 or 14 semantic primes. Even so, valuable analytical work was done on emotion terms, body parts, stage of life terms, speech acts, cases, and a number of other areas.
Over this period the inventory of semantic primes was expanded almost five-fold, and a new research emphasis on cross-translatability and lexical uni- versals entered the program. The publication of the two volume Meaning and Universal Grammar Goddard and Wierzbicka eds marked a new highpoint of empirical detail and theoretical explicitness.
More recently one can discern a trend towards increased systematisation and formalisation.
Nonetheless, over this whole span of three and half decades work, the funda- mental conviction behind the NSM program has remained the same.
This en- tails the view that every language has an irreducible semantic core with a language-like structure, with a mini-lexicon of indefinable expressions seman- tic primes and associated syntax. Logicians and formal semanticists usually adopt the opposite assumption, essentially because they regard natural language as too unsystematic, vague and grammatically idiosyncratic to be relied upon as a precise and unambigu- ous mode of expression.
To step away from natural language as the language of semantic represen- tation, on the other hand, is not only unnecessary, it is ultimately futile. This is because even a technical or artificial semantic language of description com- posed of features, logical symbols, and what-not still has to be interpretable by the users of the representation.
On this basis Keith Allan A standardised and regularised version of a natural language is preferable to an artificial creation which is in a covertly parasitic relationship with ordinary language.In effect, the combination of a set of semantic primes each representing a different basic concept, residing in minds with a propensity to acquire certain basic concepts, and a common set of rules for combining those concepts into meaningful messages, constitutes a natural semantic prime language, or natural semantic metalanguage.
Topics include: history and philosophy of the study of meaning, semantic primes and molecules, emotions, evaluation, verbs and event structure, cultural key words and scripts.
Case studies come from English, Chinese, Danish, and other languages. The Natural Semantic Metalanguage. 25 likes.
The NSM is the most well-developed, comprehensive and practical approach to cross-linguistic and. Metalanguage is the language that is used to present, name and describe terminological information, the language of a particular field name in an entry, e,g.
“synonym” is the English name of the data field, that contains synonyms to main entry terms. Natural Semantic Metalanguage Before we go further, we should understand the definition of the word “metalanguage” since it might be new for some of us.
Metalanguage is the language that is used to present, name and describe terminological information, the language of a particular field name in an entry, e,g.
|Natural Semantic Metalanguage - Sample Essays||This is supposed to establish their status as 'semantic primes' - items that are further inexplainable and from which other meanings can be built. This in itself is dubious because concepts such as "I, you" may appear as lexical items in all languages but they often do not describe the same oppositions as in English.|
|Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach - Oxford Handbooks||These valency options specify the specific types of grammatical functions that can be combined with the primes. While these combinations can be realized differently in other languages, it is believed that the meanings expressed by these syntactic combinations are universal.|
|Metaphor and the Natural Semantic Metalanguage - ScienceDirect||Table adapted from Levisen and Waters  and Goddard and Wierzbicka . A universal syntax of meaning[ edit ] Semantic primes represent universally meaningful concepts, but to have meaningful messages, or statements, such concepts must combine in a way that they themselves convey meaning.|
|Cliff Goddard||Language It can be defined as kinds of semantic analysis approach in finding the simplest meaning of a word.|
|Natural semantic metalanguage - Wikipedia||These valency options specify the specific types of grammatical functions that can be combined with the primes. While these combinations can be realized differently in other languages, it is believed that the meanings expressed by these syntactic combinations are universal.|
"synonym" is the . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) is a decompositional system of meaning representation based on e mpirically established universal semantic primes, i.e., simple indefin able meanings which.