Cultural, Political and Social Factors Influence the Meaning of Translations June 09, Translation communicates words and meanings, but also includes culture, social norms and even politics.
She kept score at his games, coached his hitting, and bucked him up when he lost. Ripken did not mention, as Duffield had, the food, clothing, barbering, and schooling that his mother took care of—that went without saying. He noted instead the emotional support and companionship she provided.
The long answer to that question is complex, partial, and sometimes surprising. Answering this question calls for a history that is not focused on presidents and politics but on ordinary people living ordinary lives, a social history. The question generates many detailed inquiries pursued in the chapters that follow.
Have Americans become increasingly satisfied or more discontent? Understanding the cultural and psychological path Americans have taken not only satisfies our curiosity, it helps us think about the path Americans should take. Historians, for example, have intensely debated the mindset of farmers in the colonial era.
Behind this question lies a broader one: But history is psychologically, rhetorically compelling. That is why political combatants wheel out their own versions of history: Not more of absolutely everything—twenty-first-century Americans, for example, have fewer siblings and cousins—but generally, more Americans gained more access to more things material, social, and personal.
And, over the generations, more of those who had been outside the circle of plenty and outside the culture of independence which that plenty sustained—a culture which I will describe shortly—joined it.
In this sense, more Americans became more American. Before elaborating on these ideas, I need to address some conventional misunderstandings of American social history.
I discuss several specific myths of the American past and a few habits of thought that currently cloud our views of that past. Some myths are mere folktales easily and often debunked, like the story that the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
Others myths are more subtle. For example, the familiar lament that families no longer take dinner together assumes that typical Americans had until recently shared such meals. However, this supposedly timeless tradition arose only among the middle class in the late nineteenth century.
Similarly, people often regret that religious holidays are no longer sacred holy days. But such holidays, too, are often recent inventions or reinventions. Over two hundred years ago, for example, the American Christmas was more a carnival of excess than a religious experience.
Hardworking historians have in recent decades mined rich veins of archives, bringing to the surface stories of how Americans of the past really lived, revealing how much those conventional assumptions turns out to be myths or half-truths.
Here are five illustrations. Over the generations Americans moved around more. The belief that residential mobility increased is one of my favorite myths, because it is so widespread, so contrary to fact, and yet so resistant to correction.
Americans turned away from religion. Sage commentators sometimes mourn, sometimes celebrate, the decline of religion and the rise of existential doubt. In fact, proportionately more twentieth-century Americans belonged to churches than belonged in prior centuries.
Rates of membership fell a bit after the s, but participation in churches still remained more widespread than in earlier eras. Whether modern churchgoers remained believers or became skeptics is hard to determine, but evidence suggests that Americans have generally kept the faith.
Americans became more violent. The specter of violent crime haunts contemporary Americans and they typically believe that life was safer in earlier days."Postwar America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History" provides detailed coverage of all the remarkable developments within the United States during this period, as well as their dramatic impact on the rest of the world.5/5(1).
Made in America A Social History of American Culture and Character What historians discover in, say, farmers’ ledgers from the s does not logically imply taking one political position versus another.
But history is psychologically, rhetorically compelling. Such mythic misunderstandings of American social and cultural history.
Famous events from American history — the movement West, the Civil War, the Industrial Revolution, involvement in World Wars I and II, the New Deal and the Great Society — have been expressions of American political culture.
Many events have questioned and answered various interpretations of American values and beliefs. Affirmative action, which are efforts to remedy the effects of past bias, is a value which is in dispute and cannot be said to be part of American political culture, though many Americans support it.
Equality of results is another value which is in dispute. Schulman’s narrative weaves together politics, economics, social developments, and cultural trends to illustrate the significance of this decade.
The author asserts that the s effectively ended with the turbulent events of , and when the “Great American .
WHITE TRASH: The Year Untold History of Class in America. By Nancy Isenberg. Viking. pp. $ If slavery is America’s original sin, class may be its hidden one.